Dating persian coins
The denominations used for Persian coins include shahi, dinars, rupees, tomans, abbasi, riyals, krans or qirans, ashrafi, mohurs, from 1930 pahlavis, and for the republic, azadis.
Because of the use of the Persian script on all Persian coins, most western coin collectors ignore Persian gold coins. This means that any collectors of Persian coins should be able to find many relatively cheap Persian coins, which may include rare and potentially valuable items, provided he is prepared to more research than the average collector.
The obverse design of these showed the king in a running kneeling position holding a spear and a bow.
In 330 BC, Darius was captured by Alexander the Great of Macedon, and the great days of the Persian Empire ended.
In 1921, Reza Khan took power in a bloodless coup, and in 1925 caused himself to be elected as Shah.
His son Shahpur Mohammed Reza following him in 1926.
At any rate, these coins were issued either from the middle of the 6th century B. From the 6th to the 4th century coinage also spread west to Greece and Italy and south and east along the Mediterranean littoral to the city-states of Persian Syria (Lycia, Caria, Pamphylia, Cilicia, Tarsus, Tyre, Byblos, Sidon, Aradus, and others) and to the satrapy of Egypt (ca. The Athenian tetradrachm and some other Greek coins were also widely used in lands under Persian rule. Darics and sigloi remained archaic in form, with a stamped impression on one side only and no inscription, but coinage on the Mediterranean littoral took on the more familiar modern form with impressions on both sides and inscriptions identifying the issuing authority. As there was no official gold coinage, there was no fixed monetary relation between gold and silver coins, though on the market the ratio of value fluctuated between and . E.) added the title “philhellene” (), a practice followed, with variations, by his immediate successors (Ghirshman, pp. Coins struck on the Persian plateau and in Choresmia, Bactria, and Sogdia bore additional inscriptions in Aramaic (Sellwood, 1980, p. As all these eras began in close chronological proximity (631, 651, and 622 respectively) and the era is not specified on the coins, it is not always easy to assign an absolute chronology to these issues.
Nevertheless, because throughout most of Persian history coins were made of metals that were also traded as commodities subject to market forces, a monopoly of minting did not guarantee control either of the circulation or of the value of the coins, both of which fluctuated in relation to coins of other states and to the market value of the component metals (see Hennequin, 1972; idem, 1977). In the Arsacid period satraps and cities were again allowed to strike coins (Sellwood, = 1 obol), were issued (Sellwood, 1980, pp. They weighed 4.10 g or more, conforming to the standard of 4.12 g for the Attic drachma, but, owing to the thinness of the metal, were of much larger diameter (Göbl, 1971, p. The Sasanians discontinued the types of the Hellenized Arsacids and included Zoroastrian symbols and various effigies on their coins (Alram, p. On the obverse there is always a bust of the crowned and bearded king in profile facing right, combined in rare instances with images that have been interpreted as the queen, the royal heir, or both; these additional small figures on coins of Bahrām II have recently been interpreted as divinities, however (Choksy). Identifiable mint names first appeared on coins struck by Bahrām II (Gyselen, 1983, p.
Furthermore, before modern times the Persian economy consisted of a conglomeration of regional economies, each with a mint and a currency system geared to local commerce, rather than an integrated national economy. E.) an early form of the Parthian script was introduced for names and titles, at first only in abbreviated form (Ghirshman, p. As each Sasanian ruler had one or more distinctive crowns (Lukonin, p. On the reverse one of three variant types of the Zoroastrian fire altar with flames is depicted: plain, flanked by two attendants, or flanked by two attendants and with a bust in the flames. 236; idem, 1984), but they apparently became obligatory only under Bahrām IV (388-99).
Standardization also simplified public finance, particularly the collection of taxes and tribute from widely differing regions. By the time of Pērōz (459-84), however, the Roman ).
In order to maintain the standard of its coins and a degree of equilibrium between supply and demand for money, each state attempts to exercise a monopoly over minting. These coins also became debased, and by the time of the Sasanian conquest in 224 C. they contained hardly 1 g of metal (Sellwood, 1980, pp. Ardašīr I (224-40) continued to mint the debased Arsacid tetradrachm of billon, an alloy of copper with a small amount of silver, as well as introducing fractional silver coins, specifically the half-drachma and the was minted until the end of the reign of Kavād I (488-96, 498-531), becoming gradually debased to less than 0.3 g and circulating mainly as token currency (Göbl, 1971, p. A major innovation in coin technology occurred in the early Sasanian period: The first thin-flan coins, cut from rolled sheet metal, were issued.